We create the ideologies, in our shared history and language experience. But successful negotiations also require a reduction of power disparity: That is, our resources--mainly people and money--are valued not only for their direct effects, but also for broader influence, both within our own organizations and beyond.
This explanation of social action, based on empirically grounded behavioral and phenomenological theories, provides a foundation for explaining the cycle of cooperation, competition, conflict, and negotiation.
While thoughtful arguments have been made for each of these ideas, macro practitioners find it more useful to understand cooperation and conflict as the outcomes of relationship dynamics occurring between organizations and institutions in the organizational field of action.
The advent of this tension can be traced to resource shifts, planned or occurring unexpectedly, such that relationships between the parties--the ways in which they define each other--no longer correspond to actual resource and power disparities.
They seek resources to secure their domain and to achieve autonomy and movement toward their goals. And leadership training that focuses on overall campaign development, including negotiations, helps to create a more grounded perspective.
We use them to create shared ideologies i. Wars are seen to conclude with the redrawing of national boundaries, marriages end with property settlements.
As already noted, relationships between organizations and institutions in the action field may be cooperative, competitive, conflicting, or in negotiation, and they are invariably in transition from one stage to another.
Essentials of Conflict Resolution Successful negotiations require a recognition that both parties must win, must have some of their needs met, except in the case of "unconditional surrender," which is virtually unheard of in the world of community organization.
In the best of circumstances, the momentum based on confidence that confrontation and conflict can be constructive offsets the inertia based on fear that they will be destructive. The cycle may be understood theoretically, for purposes of macro practice, as a response to the dialectical relationship between 1 behavioral contingencies of learning and exchange, and 2 socially constructed ideological realities.
Conscious of their increased capacity, they press to have the organization exercise its influence in ways that will materially improve their housing. The foundation is social learning theory, 2 because all human activity is an extension of individual behavior. Organizations must gather resources over and above their costs, to ensure continued life and growth.
Consider the gamut, from marriages to wars. Community organizers typically employ several methodologies to help members of grassroots organizations overcome their resistance to confrontation and conflict, simultaneously reducing the potential for destructive outcomes.
Three paradigmatic social science theories are drawn together here to describe the action field. The key to conflict resolution--recognizing that all such resolution is temporary--in many instances is a shift in realities.
But it has also achieved for itself and its opponent a new ideological definition of itself as an organizational actor, and it has established a new relationship based on that definition.
In the language of community organizing, rough approximations of these theoretical categories are values, which are equivalent to ideological realities, and self-interests, which are equivalent to learning and exchange contingencies.
The theoretical definition of the action field includes individuals and collectivities groups, organizations, and institutionstheir social processes, structures, and objectives.
The action field has two significant dimensions for which we need theoretical explanations. The theory accounts for the dynamics of power and ideology in the political economy, and, in doing so, its action-field definition distills from psychology, sociology, and political-economics, the analytical and methodological tools for macro practice.
The potential for successful negotiations to end conflicts is often thought, in turn, to hinge entirely on bargaining over resources.
On the other hand, if the resource and power differential is substantial and there is no hope of getting the housing authority into good-faith negotiations, the tendency will be to move toward conflict. These cyclical stages, along with the shifts in realities that link them, are illustrated in the diagram above.
Cycle of Cooperation, Competition, Conflict, and Negotiation There is, then, a discernable cycle of cooperation, competition, conflict, and negotiation in which these two organizations are engaged.
To the extent that realities and resources or power between the parties were no longer congruent, that is, that their socially constructed ideological definitions of each other no longer fit their actual resource positions, an imbalance or "tension" was created that tended toward competition.
That is to say, the tenants understand their relative powerlessness and rarely if ever approach the housing officials with requests for more than what can be had for the asking.After the Cold War, Francis Fukuyama, Samuel Huntington, and John Mearsheimer each presented a bold vision of what the driving forces of world politics would be.
The world in hardly seems on a more promising track -- a reminder that simple visions, however powerful, do not hold up as reliable predictors of particular developments. Describe conflict and cooperation using past and current events, including the Vietnam War, the War in Afghanistan, the Kyoto Protocol, and the tsunami in Japan.
Analyze the conditions, actions, and motivations of past and current international events. Jul 30, · The course of the conflict, including the likelihood of war, will be determined by leaders making discreet decisions, influenced by their personalities, domestic politics, including nationalism.
3: the opposition of persons or forces that gives rise to the dramatic action in a drama or fiction.
The conflict in the play is between the king and the archbishop. This item: Conflict and Cooperation: Evolving Theories of International Relations by Marc A. Genest Paperback $ Only 1 left in stock - order soon.
Sold by Media and ships from Amazon Fulfillment/5(3). Conflict and Cooperation in the Interdependent World The “Annual Asia and the Middle East Conference” aims at creating a platform of communication between academia and expert community to broaden the understanding of political processes in Eurasia.Download